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Must Know! Hadith Types and Definitions - In a contrast to the Koran which is kept pure by Allah Almighty, the number of hadiths circulating among Muslims is so large that it is impossible to memorize them as a whole. In addition there has never been a book that 100% wrote all the hadiths originating from Rasullullah Shallallaahu Alaihi Wassalam.

This is what makes the scholars make various strict standards to check whether a hadith is indeed sourced from Rasullullah Shallallaahu Alaihi Wassalam and can be practiced by the ummah or not.

Understanding of Hadith

The word Hadith comes from Arabic which can be interpreted as 'news'. In relation to Islamic law, the hadith is always attributed to words, actions and approval of Rasullullah Shallallaahu Alaihi Wassalam towards something.

Various Hadith Terms

Viewed from the origin of the word, the hadith is sometimes also referred to by the term khabar by some scholars. In addition there are also some scholars who equate the term hadith with atsar (which means file or inheritance of something).

In spite of the differences in scholarship with the terms Hadith, Khabar and Atsar, there are several similarities that deserve attention regarding the structure of a Hadith. Namely Sanad and Matan.

Sanad is the path of transmission of a hadith from Rasullullah Shallallaahu Alaihi Wassalam before reaching us, the people who are at the end of time. While Matan is the content or meaning contained in a hadith. Unlike the Al-Quran, matan in an editorial hadith does not need to be the same. As long as it has a similar meaning, then the matan can be considered as saheeh.

Types of Hadith Based on the Degree of Authenticity

The previous scholars divided 4 types of hadith which were seen based on their degree of authenticity which consisted of the Saheeh hadith, Hasan's hadith, Dhaif hadith and Mau'dhu hadith.

Saheeh hadith is a hadith which, if viewed from the sanad or the path of perfect transmission, there are no defects, all the narrators are recognized, the matan does not conflict with the Koran, and this hadith is recognized by the majority of scholars without conflict.

Hasan's Hadith is a hadith which, if viewed from the sanad or the path of transmission, is also perfect, but there are narrators whose memories are not perfect. This type of hadith is still classified as a hadith which is recognized by some scholars.

Dhaif Hadith is a hadith which has a disability in its path of transmission. For example, the name of the person referred to in Sanad apparently never existed. Or one of the narrators has bad memories and tends to be unfair.

Maudhu hadith is a hadith which is suspected of having various kinds of disabilities starting from the aspect of the sanad, and its matan. This hadith is generally recorded by the scholars in a separate book to separate it from other hadiths that have a degree of saheeh.

Ustadz Abdul Somad even mentioned that if a Hadith can be said to be saheeh, it also fulfills 5 conditions, namely that all the sanad are continued, the narrators are pious people, they have strong memories, the traditions (hadith) do not conflict with other hadiths and no other defects of hadith and accepted by the majority of scholars.

Types of Hadith Based on the Way to Arrive

The previous scholars divided the hadith into 2 when viewed from the way the hadith arrived at us, namely Mutawatir hadith and Hasan hadith.

Mutawatir Hadith is a hadith narrated by more than one route of transmission. This type of hadith has a high probability of having a degree of validity, considering that it is impossible for a group of people to lie along the entire sanad route.

Ahadith is a hadith which only has one path of care and does not fulfill the Mutawatir rules. Although it only has a route of worship, but not all hadiths on Sunday are Dhaif or Maudhu. There are also many Ahadith ahadith which are of the highest degree according to the scholars.

Types of Hadith Based on Number of Speakers

While based on the number of speakers, the scholars divided the types of hadith into 2, namely the hadith of Nazil and the hadith of Ali.

Nazil hadith is a hadith whose number of narrators is very much in one path of sanad. This type of hadith is a type of hadith which is difficult to trace because it takes longer to examine the quality of each narrator mentioned therein.

Ali's Hadith is a hadith whose number of narrations is not too much in one path of sanad. Usually this hadith is only past 2-3 narrators have been connected directly to the Rasadullah Shallallaahu Alaihi sanad Wassalam

Types of Hadith Based on Criteria Accepted or Not

Ulama also divides 2 types of hadith related to the criteria of whether the hadith is accepted or not after examining the path of the sanad and understanding the matan which is the hadith of Maqbul and the hadith of Mardud

Maqbul's hadith is a hadith which was stated to be accepted by the scholars after ensuring the validity of the sanad line and the quality of matan which does not conflict with the Koran.

Mardud's Hadith is a hadith which was declared rejected and did not meet the criteria for being declared saheeh

Ustad Adi Hidayat even mentioned that there were several other names for the Mardud Hadith or hadith that were rejected either because of the terms of the sanad and matan. One of them is the Hadith Munkar which means the hadith that in the path of the sanad there is a narrator whose actions are not in accordance with Islamic values. More complete see the following video

Thus the article Understanding Hadith and the Types of Hadith. If you like this article, please like and share. Keep trying to be a good person. Hopefully it will benefit.

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